Jim Heffelfinger, Chair
Arizona Game and Fish Department
5000 W. Carefree Highway
Phoenix, AZ 85086
The goal of this book is to summarize and synthesize the available information on mule deer ecology and management into a useful reference document. Advances in technology combined with more sophisticated experimental design has added considerable insight to the foundations of mule deer ecology described in the classic “Mule and black-tailed deer of North America” edited by O. C. Wallmo and published in 1981. Integration of new information into management approaches, accompanied by proper evaluation, has assisted in fine-tuning management strategies to provide for healthy mule deer populations throughout the western states and provinces.
The Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies created the Mule deer working group in 1998 to address concerns about the long-term decline in mule deer numbers. The group, consisting of wildlife biologists from western states and Canadian provinces, has collectively pooled the available scientific knowledge on all aspects of mule deer biology and ecology into one source.
This book is organized into nine chapters, with 8 chapters reviewing the major influences on mule deer and one chapter examining the critically important area of data collection and use. With chapters written and reviewed by 20 active mule deer managers and researchers; the information is as timely as one can hope for.
The mule deer has become a symbol of the West because the species spans the West from Mexico well into Canada. The continuing evolution of western land management requires that wildlife managers anticipate these changes in land use and make recommendations based on the best science available. Emergence of new issues will require continued emphasis on both population and habitat monitoring. This text will certainly contribute to the body of scientific information used by managers, researchers and mule deer enthusiasts.
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An interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in support of this conservation plan has been signed by major land management agencies and WAFWA.
Available in a downloadable PDF version or hardcopies of this document are also available from your local State or Provincial wildlife management agency.
A publication about the movement and travel patterns of Mule Deer and the barriers to them.
Tim Abell hosts this look into the challenges facing mule deer. We'll meet the dedicated people working to help this majestic icon of the West. This video was produced by the Mule Deer Working Group with financial assistance from the Mule Deer Foundation and the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.
This video production aired on the Sportsman Channel and the entire show is now available here.
Manuscript titled: “A Case for Standardized Ungulate Surveys and Data Management in the Western United States.” Which calls for an improvement in how consistently survey data is collected and stored.
Interactive Map of North American black-tailed and mule deer habitat This link takes you to the Remote Sensing/GIS Lab website at Utah State University were you can download GIS files and a map (Note: these maps are intended to be used at a very macro scale throughout mule deer range and not to plan local projects).
Or, if you use Google Earth on your computer, simply clicking on these links will allow you to view this information in that program.
Winter Concentration Areas
Other Important Habitat Features
Overall Habitat Map
You can find a description of these categories HERE
A publication about disease risks involved with deer translocation by wildlife management agencies.
We asked Mule Deer Working Group representatives to rank research needs in order of importance from the highest rank “Extremely important and urgently needed research” to the lowest “Unnecessary research: I oppose spending money on this research.” Their choices indicate how important they believe research on that topic is for mule deer management.
We also have more detailed information and prioritized lists for each of the 7 ecoregions in North America here.
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